Where are aromatic hydrocarbons found?
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. They also are produced when coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, and tobacco are burned.
Are aromatic hydrocarbons toxic?
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread across the globe mainly due to long-term anthropogenic sources of pollution. PAH pollutants have been determined to be highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunotoxicogenic to various life forms.
How to treat PAHs?
Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors.
What is meant by polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons?
A polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon made up of fused aromatic ring molecules. These rings share one or more sides and contain delocalized electrons. Another way to consider PAHs is molecules made by fusing two or more benzene rings.
Why are they called aromatic hydrocarbons?
Aromatic compounds, originally named because of their fragrant properties, are unsaturated hydrocarbon ring structures that exhibit special properties, including unusual stability, due to their aromaticity. They are often represented as resonance structures containing single and double bonds.
What are the effects of aromatic hydrocarbons?
Long-term health effects of exposure to PAHs may include cataracts, kidney and liver damage, and jaundice. Repeated skin contact to the PAH naphthalene can result in redness and inflammation of the skin. Breathing or swallowing large amounts of naphthalene can cause the breakdown of red blood cells.
Why are polyaromatic hydrocarbons toxic?
The mechanism of toxicity is considered to be interference with the function of cellular membranes as well as with enzyme systems which are associated with the membrane. It has been proved that PAHs can cause carcinogenic and mutagenic effects and are potent immune-suppressants.
How do you get rid of PAH in water?
The removal of PAHs varied in the order: naphthalene ≈ acenaphthalene > anthracene ≈ pyrene > phenanthrene > fluoranthrene. The treatment combination having the maximum removal capacity was also used eficiently for the removal of PAHs from natural and fortified natural water.
What are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons give examples?
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of chemicals that occur naturally in coal, crude oil, and gasoline. They also are produced when coal, oil, gas, wood, garbage, and tobacco are burned. PAHs generated from these sources can bind to or form small particles in the air.
How are polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons classified?
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread environmental pollutants produced in the combustion of organic matter. This metabolic activation and DNA damage is induced in lung epithelium, and the mutagenicity of PAHs can be classified by DNA microarray expression profiles.
What are the properties of aromatic hydrocarbons?
Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Properties of Aromatic Hydrocarbons include that their major sources are Petroleum and coal. They are well known for their exceptional physical and chemical properties. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons are defined as aromatic compounds with more than one benzene. When they include in atmospheric pollution then it is known as carcinogenic in nature.
Which is characteristic of aromatic hydrocarbons?
Aromatic hydrocarbons are a class of chemical substances that are characterized by having molecular structures that are called benzene rings. The chemically simplest is benzene , and the structure of this hydrocarbon lent its name to the benzene ring.
What are the uses of aromatic compounds?
Aromatic compounds are extremely numerous and have practical significance. Thus, aromatic nitro compounds, sulfonic acids, phenols, and amines are intermediates in the synthesis of many dyes and pharmaceuticals. Phenols , styrene , and terephthalic acid are used in synthesizing polymers.
What does “aromatic” really mean?
Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word aromatic. A fragrant plant or spice added to a dish to flavour it. Etymology: From aromatique, from Ancient Greek ἄρωμα. Fragrant or spicy. Etymology: From aromatique, from Ancient Greek ἄρωμα.