Table of Contents
Why is synephrine banned?
Bitter orange contains synephrine, which is similar to ephedra — a chemical the FDA banned because it raises blood pressure and was linked to heart attacks and stroke. Pills for weight loss frequently contain bitter orange extract.
What does synephrine do for the body?
p-Synephrine applications include weight loss/weight management, sport performance, appetite control, energy, mental focus, and cognition. Various studies indicate that p-synephrine exerts these effects through such mechanisms as binding to β3-adrenergic receptors, which regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.
Is bitter orange the same as synephrine?
Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) is a fruit-bearing tree native to Asia. It contains an active ingredient called synephrine that is similar to ephedra.
How much synephrine is safe?
The report concluded that consumption of up to 50 mg per day of p‐synephrine alone in healthy adults ‘is not likely to cause any adverse health consequences’.
What foods contain synephrine?
Synephrine has been found in marmalade made from Citrus unshiu (Satsuma mandarin) obtained in Japan, at a concentration of ~0.12 mg/g (or about 2.4 mg/20g serving). Most of the orange marmalades made in the US are produced using “sweet” oranges (C. sinensis), whereas “bitter” or Seville oranges (C.
Is synephrine like ephedrine?
In response to concerns regarding the safety of ephedra-containing dietary supplements, manufacturers have marketed “ephedrafree” products. Many of these contain synephrine, a sympathomimetic amine from the plant Citrus aurantium. Synephrine is structurally similar to ephedrine and has vasoconstrictor properties.
What fruits contain synephrine?
Synephrine is found in several citrus fruits, including Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) and C. reticulata (mandarin orange), both of which are used in TCM [35,36].
What plants contain synephrine?
How strong is synephrine?
In experiments with isolated sheep carotid artery, d-, l- and d,l-synephrine all showed some vasoconstrictor activity: l-synephrine was the most potent, producing strong contractions at a concentration of 1:10000.
What are the side effects of synephrine?
Common side effects of Neo-Synephrine include burning, stinging, pain, increased redness of the eye, tearing or blurred vision, headache, tremor, nausea, sweating, nervousness, dizziness, drowsiness, dryness in the nose, runny nose, and sneezing. The dose of Neo-Synephrine depends on the condition being treated.
What’s the difference between Zhi Shi and ephedrine?
While synephrine and many of the components that can be found in zhi shi appear to be the same as the ones found in ephedrine, synephrine is believed to work as a stimulant without leaving the negative side effects that inflict the central nervous system like ephedra does.
Where is synephrine found in the citrus tree?
Synephrine can be found in the fruit of a plant known as Citrus aurantium. It is one of the main active compounds found in the fruit and is also known as green orange, or zhi shi in Chinese. It is also called sour orange or bitter orange in other parts of the world. Chemically speaking,…
When did synephrine first appear on the market?
As a synthetic drug, synephrine first appeared in Europe in the late 1920s, under the name of Sympatol. One of the earliest papers describing its pharmacological and toxicological properties was written by Lasch, who obtained it from the Viennese company Syngala.
Are there any over the counter medications that contain synephrine?
Chemically speaking, synephrine is chemically similar to the pseudo-ephedrine and ephedrine compounds that can be located in many of the over-the-counter cold and allergy medications. It is also found in a variety of weight loss and energy supplements that contain Ma Huang. What are the benefits of taking synephrine?