## What are fixed factors and covariates in SPSS?

It does not matter if the variable is something you manipulated or something you are controlling for. If it’s categorical, it goes in Fixed Factors. Now, you can put a categorical variable into Covariates, as long as it’s coded properly–dummy or effect coding are common.

**What does Communalities mean in factor analysis?**

Communalities indicate the amount of variance in each variable that is accounted for. Initial communalities are estimates of the variance in each variable accounted for by all components or factors. For principal components extraction, this is always equal to 1.0 for correlation analyses.

### Is a covariate a fixed effect?

A covariate is part of the model, and can be either a fixed effect or a random effect.

**What is the next step after factor analysis?**

The next step is to select a rotation method. After extracting the factors, SPSS can rotate the factors to better fit the data. The most commonly used method is varimax.

## What is uniqueness in factor analysis?

Uniqueness is the variance that is ‘unique’ to the variable and not shared with other variables. It is equal to 1 – communality (variance that is shared with other variables). For example, 61.57% of the variance in ‘ideol’ is not share with other variables in the overall factor model.

**What are the steps of factor analysis?**

Step 1: Selecting and Measuring a set of variables in a given domain.

### What is a fixed effect variable?

Fixed effects are variables that are constant across individuals; these variables, like age, sex, or ethnicity, don’t change or change at a constant rate over time. They have fixed effects; in other words, any change they cause to an individual is the same.

**How to choose fixed factors and covariates in SPSS?**

SPSS does that for you by default. 2.The default is for SPSS to create interactions among all fixed factors. So if you have 5 fixed factors and don’t want to test 5-way interactions that you’ll never be able to interpret, you’ll need to create a custom model by clicking Model and removing some of the interactions. 3.

## When do you use fixed factors in SPSS GLM?

Fixed Factors are categorical independent variables. It does not matter if the variable is something you manipulated or something you are controlling for. If it’s categorical, it goes in Fixed Factors.

**Which is a variable after the by keyword in SPSS?**

In SPSS, a variable after the BY keyword is a Fixed Factor (or categorical variable) and a variable after the WITH statement is a Covariate (or a continuous variable). Here we are only interested in Fixed Factors. The output we obtain from running the code is: a.

### What does the factor structure matrix in SPSS represent?

The factor structure matrix represents the correlations between the variables and the factors. The factor pattern matrix contain the coefficients for the linear combination of the variables.