What are the steps of translation of DNA?
Translation is the process by which the genetic code contained within a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule is decoded to produce a specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. It occurs in the cytoplasm following DNA transcription and, like transcription, has three stages: initiation, elongation and termination.
What are the major steps of translation?
Translation of an mRNA molecule occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination.
What is the first step of translation?
The first stage is initiation. In this step, a special “initiator” tRNA carrying the amino acid methionine binds to a special site on the small subunit of the ribosome (the ribosome is composed of two subunits, the small subunit and the large subunit).
Where is DNA located?
Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.
How can human cells make 75 000?
In a eukaryotic cell? Given that there are about 20,000 human genes, how can human cells make 75,000 – 100,000 different proteins? Due to alternative splicing of exons, each gene can result in multiple different mRNA’s and can thus direct synthesis of multiple different proteins.
What are the five steps of translation?
The correct order of steps in translation is activation, Initiation, elongation and termination.
What is the initiation step in translation?
The first step in translation, initiation, begins when an mRNA binds to a free light ribosomal subunit. A transfer RNA molecule then brings the first amino acid to the light subunit of the ribosome. Other protein factors join this assemblage and then the heavy ribosomal subunit binds to complete initiation.
What is the process of translation in biology?
In molecular biology and genetics, translation is the process in which ribosomes in the cytoplasm or ER synthesize proteins after the process of transcription of DNA to RNA in the cell’s nucleus. The entire process is called gene expression.