What is a housekeeping gene GAPDH?
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is one of the most commonly used housekeeping genes used in comparisons of gene expression data. These data establish comparative levels of expression and can be used to add value to gene expression data in which GAPDH is used as the internal control.
What is considered housekeeping gene?
Housekeeping genes are typically constitutive genes that are required for the maintenance of basal cellular functions that are essential for the existence of a cell, regardless of its specific role in the tissue or organism.
What are housekeeping genes examples?
Examples of housekeeping genes include actin, GAPDH and ubiquitin. Compare: luxury gene. See also: genetic expression, transcription.
Is cyclophilin A housekeeping gene?
The results suggest that the cyclophilin A gene is the most suitable housekeeping gene analysed for expression studies utilising uncultured bronchial airway epithelial cells from healthy and asthmatic children, and highlight the importance of validating housekeeping genes for each experimental model.
Is insulin a housekeeping gene?
The first exon of the insulin receptor gene is embedded in an unusual segment of DNA composed of Alu repeats. The promoter has the characteristics typical of a housekeeping gene. It is GC-rich and has multiple start sites of transcription.
Is tubulin a housekeeping gene?
Housekeeping genes are so-named because they express proteins whose functions are for maintenance of basic cell functions. Common housekeeping genes used to normalize Western blots include: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), beta-actin, tubulin or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90).
Is vinculin a housekeeping gene?
For high molecular weight (over 100 kDa) proteins we recommend Vinculin as a loading control. GAPDH is listed as a Top 20 housekeeping gene with the highest and most consistent average expression (She et al., 2009). Therefore GAPDH, together with beta actin and tubulin is one of the most commonly used loading controls.
Why does Western blot use housekeeping proteins?
How is glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase used in housekeeping genes?
Among many housekeeping genes, expressions of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin have been used extensively for normalization of gene expression data. Here, we show that GAPDH and β-actin are direct targets of miR-644a.
How does miRNA affect the expression of housekeeping genes?
The possible direct or indirect effects of a miRNA on the expression of housekeeping genes are often overlooked. Among many housekeeping genes, expressions of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and β-actin have been used extensively for normalization of gene expression data.
How are GAPDH and β actin used in qRT PCR?
The housekeeping genes, GAPDH and β-actin are routinely used for the normalization of data in qRT-PCR experiments estimating the effect of miRNAs on target mRNA expression.