What nutrients does CSF transport?
It serves as a transport medium, carrying nutrients for cells and removing products of their metabolism. However, CSF not only contains polypeptides which pass through the blood-brain barrier but also harbours peptides and proteins manufactured locally.
What is the direction of CSF flow?
Normally, CSF flows anteriorly in the lateral ventricles through the foramen of Monro and into the third ventricle. CSF then flows caudally from the third ventricle through the aqueduct of Sylvius into the fourth ventricle.
How does cerebrospinal fluid nourish the brain?
Functionally, the CSF provides buoyancy, nourishment (e.g., vitamins) and endogenous waste product removal for the brain by bulk flow into the venous (arachnoid villi and nerve roots) and lymphatic (nasal) systems, and by carrier-mediated reabsorptive transport systems in CP.
What helps CSF flow?
Unlike blood passing from the capillaries into the choroid plexus, the epithelial cells lining the choroid plexus contain tight junctions between cells, which act to prevent most substances flowing freely into CSF. Cilia on the apical surfaces of the ependymal cells beat to help transport the CSF.
Where can CSF be found?
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless liquid found in your brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord make up your central nervous system.
What causes increased CSF production?
The increased CSF production is the result of an increased activity of Na+-K+ ATPase at the choroid plexus level, which establishes a sodium gradient across the choroid epithelial cells, as well as of an elevated CBF (66).
What does CSF look like?
Normal CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that contains small quantities of glucose (a sugar) and protein. CSF surrounds the outside of the brain and spinal cord and also fills the ventricles (spaces) of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord.
Where is CSF blocked?
Non-communicating hydrocephalus happens when the flow of CSF is blocked along one or more of the narrow passages connecting the ventricles.
Where does CSF flow in the central nervous system?
The arachnoid emerges into the dural sinuses as the arachnoid granulations, where the CSF is filtered back into the blood for drainage from the nervous system. The subarachnoid space is filled with circulating CSF, which also provides a liquid cushion to the brain and spinal cord.
Where does CSF flow occur in the LM?
CSF flow abnormalities in LM are most commonly observed at the base of the brain, in the spinal subarachnoid space (especially at the level of the cauda equina), and over the cerebral convexities. 28,91,93,95
What causes excessive CSF in the cerebrospinal fluid?
Hydrocephalus may be caused by excessive production of CSF, by obstruction of its flow, or by impaired absorption through the arachnoid villi. Hydrocephalus is an abnormal enlargement of the head in children due to an abnormal increase in the amount of CSF.
What is failure of radioisotope movement in CSF?
Failure of radionuclide to appear in a given CSF compartment is operationally defined as CSF flow block. 18 Failure of radioisotope movement can be defined as complete or partial obstruction of CSF flow. In most centers, partial CSF flow obstruction is not considered as constituting a CSF flow block.